Garden trees require care all year round, and the longevity and productivity of fruit crops depend on how competently it is carried out. One of the most important points for the care of trees and shrubs is pruning, the main task of which is the correct formation of the crown.
Proper pruning helps the plant to evenly distribute nutrition and strength, so the harvest on trees with a well-formed crown is plentiful, and the fruits are of high quality. Pruning is the complete or partial removal of shoots and branches, a method of care that serves to regulate their development, growth and fruiting. In addition to the formative function, pruning also performs a sanitary function – it thins out the crown and frees the tree or bush from branches that endanger the health of the plant and endanger its longevity.
Pruning of apple trees is carried out in spring, and sometimes in summer, when ripening apples have a lack of light due to a too dense crown. In autumn, the apple tree is pruned in November, and at the same time, as a rule, the crown is sanitized. At the same time, pruning in the fall can be started only after the end of leaf fall.
first you need to remove large branches that are injured or dry;
from branches growing very close to each other, the strongest should be left, and the rest should be removed;
cut branches growing at an acute angle;
After trimming, the places of cuts should be covered with paint on drying oil or garden pitch, while the processing of dry branches is carried out immediately, and young ones – after 24 hours.
If the apple tree is young, then with the help of a pruner only a weak pruning is done, while the growth of this year should be shortened by ¼. Apple trees that are 5–6 years old need pruning of medium intensity – strong branches are shortened by 1/3 of their length. Old apple trees are pruned for the purpose of rejuvenation in 3 stages. So, in the first year, you need to remove approximately 1/3 of all old branches, in the second year, another 1/3 of the old branches, and the remaining 1/3 part after another 1 year.
Some gardeners mistakenly believe that pear trees should be pruned in exactly the same way as apple trees. A pear tree, like an apple tree, should not be pruned annually. For sanitary purposes, you can cut a pear in the fall only if it is still warm outside.
The best time to prune this garden crop is spring, when it will be warmer than +8 ° C outside. In the case when the tree needs to be cut in the fall, this can only be done in September. Autumn pruning of adult pear trees is usually done only for sanitary purposes. So, at this time, you should cut off the branches that thicken the crown, as well as injured and sick ones. It is also recommended to shorten the crown and annual shoots by 1/3. But at the same time, try not to disturb the shape of the crown, which should be pyramidal, during the procedure.
Autumn pruning plum not only prepares it for the upcoming winter, but also helps to increase productivity. After the plant stops growing and all the leaves fall off, it begins preparing for sleep. At this time, dry, insect-damaged and diseased branches should be cut from the tree, and the top should also be shortened, but this is only when the height of the tree exceeds 250 cm.
After that, you need to shorten too fast-growing shoots, as well as cut off competing shoots, because in the spring they will provoke a thickening of the crown, which will make the light flow much worse. In young plums, the upper and side shoots should be shortened by no more than 1/3 of the part, while the branches that grow inside the crown should be cut off completely. The places of cuts must be processed. If the plum tree is old, then it is better to postpone pruning until spring.
Seedlings that are only 1 year old do not need to be pruned in the fall, as they are not able to recover quickly, and the onset of frost can kill them. In older cherries, you need to cut out all the branches except for the 5 strongest, which should be directed in different directions.
Sanitary pruning of adult cherries is carried out only if necessary, while cutting off dry, injured, as well as diseased branches. In autumn, all the growth should be cut out, because it makes the plant weaker, while in winter, small rodents, as well as various pests, like to hide in it. Formative pruning of young cherries is best done in the spring.
Apricot pruning can be done in spring, summer and autumn. At the same time, in the spring, pruning should be thorough, including shaping, sanitary, and, if necessary, rejuvenating. In the summer, they are pruned only when there is a danger that the branches will break off due to the large number of fruits.
In autumn, the apricot needs sanitary pruning, for this you need to remove diseased and dry branches, and you also need to thin out the crown. It is necessary to remove those branches and shoots that grow inward. But at the same time, it should be remembered that the apricot loves heat, because of this, it is absolutely impossible to inflict deep cuts. If nevertheless this happened, then the wound should be smeared with blue vitriol, and then with garden pitch, to prevent the gum from flowing out.